Voles are field mice that create tunnels and dens under the ground. They are often first noticed when snow melts in the spring and "trails" are seen in the grass where they fed during the winter. Often holes will also appear, and can typically be distinguished from other rodent holes by the lack of a mound around the holes. They vary in length from 3″ up to 9″ long, and typically have a stubby tail. They can produce 10 litters of 5-10 young, which can begin having babies in a month. They typically live 3-6 months, but can live up to 1 year. Due to extensive tunnel networks, smoking out or flooding out moles and voles is largely ineffective.
Gophers grow up to 14″ long. They can damage landscapes, underground wiring, sprinkler systems, etc. Unlike moles, they will eat roots and bulbs. They can produce litters of 2-5 young. They are typically solitary animals, with just one gopher per tunnel system, except during breeding seasons. Their mounds are usually larger than mole mounds, and are "lopsided", with the burrow in the direction away from the dirt pile.